Mitt Romney, 2012 Republican Party nominee for president and current U.S. Senator from Utah, took the unprecedented step of voting to convict a president of his own party at an impeachment trial. Romney justified his action by asserting he was following the values of and deep commitment to his Mormon faith.
“As a senator juror, I swore an oath before God to exercise impartial justice. I am profoundly religious. My faith is at the heart of who I am,” Romney said on the floor of the Senate before getting choked up and briefly pausing.
“I take an oath before God as enormously consequential,” he continued after regaining his composure. “[M]y promise before God to apply impartial justice required that I put my personal feelings and political biases aside. Were I to ignore the evidence that has been presented and disregard what I believe my oath and the Constitution demands of me for the sake of a partisan end, it would, I fear, expose my character to history’s rebuke and the censure of my own conscience.”
Where one stands on the political spectrum may determine the lens of analysis through which Romney will be judged – on a continuum for a profile in courage to an act of betrayal. In all likelihood, though, history will record that he considered conscience over Party, facts in the case in which he served as juror over denial or trivialization of those facts.
Relying on the tenets and values of his Mormon religion as the reason for his actions, though, calls into question the foundations on which his faith and conscience rest. His denomination, also known as the Church of Latter-Day Saints or LDS, throughout its checkered history and into the current era, has exhibited numerous forms of oppression, most notably sexism, heterosexism, racism, and anti-Jewish oppression as official doctrine and policy.
Men are called as high priests because of their exceeding faith and good works — They are to teach the commandments — Through righteousness they are sanctified and enter into the rest of the Lord — Melchizedek was one of these — Angels are declaring glad tidings throughout the land — They will declare the actual coming of Christ. About 82 B.C.
Chapter 13, Book of Alma in The Book of Mormon
The Bishops Council of LDS (an all-male assembly) not so long ago excommunicated in absentia life-long committed member, Kate Kelly, on the charge of “apostasy” for “conduct contrary to the laws and order of the church.” The “conduct” to which the Bishops refer amounts to Kelly’s lobbying efforts for the Church to change its policies and finally allow women’s ordination. Kelly serves as a lawyer and she co-founded the website OrdainWomen.org as a forum to raise issues and provide discussion on this crucial topic.
According to the website: “Ordain Women aspires to create a space for Mormons to articulate issues of gender inequality they may be hesitant to raise alone. As a group we intend to put ourselves in the public eye and call attention to the need for the ordination of Mormon women to the priesthood.”
The Bishops told Kelly in an email message that she could gain reinstatement after one year if she exhibited “true repentance” and relinquished her activism for women’s ordination. Kelly, however, claiming she “did nothing wrong,” vowed not to give up her fight, and though she does not have hope for a reversal, she plans to appeal the decision.
Homosexual behavior violates the commandments of God, is contrary to the purposes of human sexuality, distorts loving relationships, and deprives people of the blessings that can be found in family life and in the saving ordinances of the gospel. Those who persist in such behavior or who influence others to do so are subject to Church discipline. Homosexual behavior can be forgiven through sincere repentance.
The Handbook of Instructions, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
These words supposedly expressed God’s revelation to the leadership of LDS and reaffirmed in 1995 when the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles entered the debate on the parameters of marriage by issuing “The Family: A Proclamation to the World.”
It stated in part, “We, the First Presidency and the Council of the Twelve Apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, solemnly proclaim that marriage between a man and a woman is ordained of God and that the family is central to the Creator’s plan for the eternal destiny of His Children” and claimed that the power to create children “is not an incidental part of the plan of happiness. It is the key – the very key…. This commandment has never been rescinded.”
Leaders and members of the church, therefore, justified contributing an estimated $22 million to the 2008 California Ballot 8 initiative campaign, which succeeded in limiting the rights and benefits of marriage to one man and one woman.
If the Church’s position on same-sex attractions, expression, and marriage for same-sex couples was not clear enough, LDS President of the Quorum of Twelve Apostles, Boyd K. Packer, referred to homosexuality throughout a sharply worded sermon as “wrong,” or “basically wrong,” “wicked,” “impure,” “unnatural,” “immoral,” “against nature,” “evil,” and as a threat to civilization. Packer’s sermon, delivered to the more than 20,000 participants in the LDS Conference Center in Salt Lake City, and millions more watching on satellite television at the Church’s 180th Semiannual General Conference in October 2010, stated in part:
We teach a standard of moral conduct that will protect us from Satan’s many substitutes or counterfeits for marriage. We must understand that any persuasion to enter into any relationship that is not in harmony with the principles of the gospel must be wrong. From the Book of Mormon we learn that ‘wickedness never was happiness’…. There are those today who not only tolerate but advocate voting to change laws that would legalize immorality, as if a vote would somehow alter the designs of God’s laws and nature. A law against nature would be impossible to enforce…. To legalize that which is basically wrong or evil will not prevent the pain and penalties that will follow as surely as night follows day…. If we do not protect and foster the family, civilization and our liberties must perish.
Under this backdrop and literally across the street and one block from the Mormon Temple in Salt Lake City, I was invited to present a keynote address to the delegates at the Eighty-First Annual Convention of the Rocky Mountain Psychological Association on April 16, 2011. I titled my address, “Homophobia: How We All Pay the Price,” based on the notion that homophobia – sometimes referred to as “heterosexism” (prejudice and discrimination against LGBTQ people) is pervasive throughout society and each of us, irrespective of sexual or gender identity and expression, is at risk of its harmful effects.
Following my keynote address, a number of the convention delegates came to the podium to talk about how much they had gained from my remarks. In particular, I was enormously touched by the words of three delegates who literally moved me to tears.
A woman approached me with moistened eyes and tears running down her cheeks. Unable initially to speak, she hugged me and sobbed on my shoulder. She ultimately expressed how much my words had moved her, and through her sobs, told me the story of how her stepson, a young gay man, killed himself three years earlier, and how members of her religious community, the LDS congregation of her small rural community, had shunned and scorned her when the young man’s sexual identity become known.
Words failed me as we continued to hold and comfort each other.
Looking on was another woman who joined us. “I have a nine-year-old son, whom I am quite certain is gay,” she told us, as tears also streamed from her eyes. “I am forced to make a decision,” she said with urgency in her voice. “I must leave my LDS church and save my son from a possibly tragic fate if I remain. My son is the most important thing in my life, and I refuse to lose him to the narrow views of the people around me.”
While sad, she also felt somewhat empowered in her decision to separate from what she considered as abuse and misunderstanding from her church community.
As I was on my way out of the large conference hall, I noticed a man, red eyed, who beckoned me. “I am a professor at Brigham Young University,” he explained. “Until your talk, I had never truly understood the hurt the LDS policy has on real people, but you personalized the issue for me.” With a tone of deep sincerity in his voice, he said: “I commit to you that I will bring this message to my campus when I go back to work on Monday.”
Yes, the LDS “revelation” on sexuality and gender expression has, indeed, hurt and damaged real people, but looking back historically, other LDS “revelations” have subjugated people while damaging the Church’s reputation.
Then LDS President Brigham Young instituted a policy on February 13, 1849, emanating from “divine revelation” and continuing until as recently as 1978 forbidding ordination of black men from the ranks of LDS priesthood. In addition, this policy prohibited men and women of African descent from participating in the temple Endowment and Sealings, which the Church demands as essential for the highest degree of salvation. The policy likewise restricted black people from attending or participating in temple marriages.
Young attributed this restriction to the sin of Cain, Adam and Eve’s eldest son, who killed his brother Abel: “What chance is there for the redemption of the Negro?” stated Young in 1849 following declaration of his restrictive policy. “The Lord had cursed Cain’s seed with blackness and prohibited them the Priesthood.”
While making a speech to the Utah Territorial Legislature in 1852, Young further asserted: “Any man having one drop of the seed of [Cain]…in him cannot hold the Priesthood, and if no other Prophet ever spoke it before, I will say it now in the name of Jesus Christ I know it is true and others know it.”
In another instance, Young continued: “You see some classes of the human family that are black, uncouth, uncomely, disagreeable and low in their habits, wild, and seemingly deprived of nearly all the blessings of the intelligence that is generally bestowed upon mankind…. Cain slew his brother. Cain might have been killed, and that would have put a termination to that line of human beings. That was not to be, and the Lord put a mark upon him, which is the flat nose and black skin… that they should be the ‘servant of servants’; and they will be, until that curse is removed….”
Joseph Fielding Smith, Tenth Prophet and President of the LDS Church wrote in 1935 that, “Not only was Cain called upon to suffer, but because of his wickedness, he became the father of an inferior race. A curse was placed upon him and that curse has been continued through his lineage and must do so while time endures….” And in 1963 he asserted: “Such a change [in our policy] can come about only through divine revelation, and no one can predict when a divine revelation will occur.”
It seems that the Twelfth LDS Church president, Spencer W. Kimball, who served from 1973 to his death in 1985, was touched with such a “vision” and, therefore, reversed the ban, referring to it as “the long-promised day.”
We can ask today whether “revelation” or mere pragmatism was the determining factor in permitting black people full membership rights in the Church at a time of ongoing and heightened civil rights activities in the United States and an increase in LDS missionary recruiting efforts throughout the African continent.
We can also ask whether “revelation” or mere pragmatism was the motivating consideration for abandoning its promotion of polygamous marriages at a time when the United States Congress demanded this as a condition for the admission of Utah as a state within the United States.
Reports came to light in 1995 that LDS was secretly inflicting forced and unwarranted posthumous “baptisms” onto Jewish Holocaust victims, including my European relatives whom the Nazis murdered. After the practice surfaced, LDS promised to discontinue these ritual baptisms, but reneged. LDS disclosed in 2011 it had “baptized” Daniel Pearl, a reporter who was Jewish for the Wall Street Journal whom terrorists kidnapped and killed in Pakistan in 2002, and also Anne Frank, whom LDS baptized in 2012.
How many more times will the LDS hierarchy refuse ordination to women? How many more times will LDS members shun people and their families? How many more young people will injure and kill themselves due to LDS exclusionary and discriminatory policies? And how many more families will grieve the loss of loved ones before the LDS Church leadership receives its “divine revelation” to welcome and grant full membership rights, privileges, and responsibilities to people of all sexes, sexual identities, and gender identities and expressions?
I ask Mitt Romney for his response.