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Scientists say baby born with HIV apparently cured

Sunday, March 3, 2013

WASHINGTON — A baby born with the virus that causes AIDS appears to have been cured, scientists announced Sunday, describing the case of a child from Mississippi who’s now 2½ and has been off medication for about a year with no signs of infection.

There’s no guarantee the child will remain healthy, although sophisticated testing uncovered just traces of the virus’ genetic material still lingering. If so, it would mark only the world’s second reported cure.

Dr. Hannah Gay, a pediatric HIV specialist at the University of Mississippi.
Photo: Jay Ferchaud, University of Mississippi Medical Center, via AP

Specialists say Sunday’s announcement, at a major AIDS meeting in Atlanta, offers promising clues for efforts to eliminate HIV infection in children, especially in AIDS-plagued African countries where too many babies are born with the virus.

“You could call this about as close to a cure, if not a cure, that we’ve seen,” Dr. Anthony Fauci of the National Institutes of Health, who is familiar with the findings, told The Associated Press.

A doctor gave this baby faster and stronger treatment than is usual, starting a three-drug infusion within 30 hours of birth. That was before tests confirmed the infant was infected and not just at risk from a mother whose HIV wasn’t diagnosed until she was in labor.

“I just felt like this baby was at higher-than-normal risk, and deserved our best shot,” Dr. Hannah Gay, a pediatric HIV specialist at the University of Mississippi, said in an interview.

That fast action apparently knocked out HIV in the baby’s blood before it could form hideouts in the body. Those so-called reservoirs of dormant cells usually rapidly reinfect anyone who stops medication, said Dr. Deborah Persaud of Johns Hopkins Children’s Center. She led the investigation that deemed the child “functionally cured,” meaning in long-term remission even if all traces of the virus haven’t been completely eradicated.

Next, Persaud’s team is planning a study to try to prove that, with more aggressive treatment of other high-risk babies. “Maybe we’ll be able to block this reservoir seeding,” Persaud said.

No one should stop anti-AIDS drugs as a result of this case, Fauci cautioned.

But “it opens up a lot of doors” to research if other children can be helped, he said. “It makes perfect sense what happened.”

In the Mississippi case, the mother had had no prenatal care when she came to a rural emergency room in advanced labor. A rapid test detected HIV. In such cases, doctors typically give the newborn low-dose medication in hopes of preventing HIV from taking root. But the small hospital didn’t have the proper liquid kind, and sent the infant to Gay’s medical center. She gave the baby higher treatment-level doses.

The child responded well through age 18 months, when the family temporarily quit returning and stopped treatment, researchers said. When they returned several months later, remarkably, Gay’s standard tests detected no virus in the child’s blood.

Ten months after treatment stopped, a battery of super-sensitive tests at half a dozen laboratories found no sign of the virus’ return.

The only other person considered cured of the AIDS virus underwent a very different and risky kind of treatment — a bone marrow transplant from a special donor, one of the rare people who is naturally resistant to HIV. Timothy Ray Brown of San Francisco has not needed HIV medications in the five years since that transplant.

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8 more reader comments:

  1. Tentatively glad to hear the news, but not sure I believe the findings yet.

    Posted on Sunday, March 3, 2013 at 5:50pm
  2. Sorry I am NOT buying this! Thousands of people with HIV have been non detectable for years since the late 90′s! Cured is a VERY strong word to use and for a baby that has not been in constant contact with the doctors because the mother doesn’t bring her in all the time. Undetectable is NOT cured.HIV is an ever changing virus and complex enough to morph to resist drugs. So who is to say it can’t or won’t lay back and wait?

    Posted on Sunday, March 3, 2013 at 5:53pm
  3. Very valid points, jay and mike……but let’s remain optimistic :)

    Posted on Sunday, March 3, 2013 at 5:55pm
  4. Awesome news! I’m proud of my state! I’m keeping my fingers crossed.

    Posted on Sunday, March 3, 2013 at 5:56pm
  5. The article never mentioned whether or not the baby even actually had HIV… Just that there was high risk.

    Posted on Sunday, March 3, 2013 at 5:59pm
  6. This is amazing news! Please remember to be SAFE everyone. Meds and cures are fantastic. Better still is never contracting the virus in the first place! :)

    Posted on Sunday, March 3, 2013 at 6:03pm
  7. I smell bullshit beyond compare.

    Posted on Sunday, March 3, 2013 at 6:24pm
  8. I heard about this. They aren’t sure if it’s true yet, but if it is, it’ll be the second time it’s happened.

    Posted on Sunday, March 3, 2013 at 8:36pm